Coronaviruses Scientific view
The name coronavirus is copied from the Latin corona, meaning “crown” or “halo”. Which indicates to the characteristic appearance of the surface being covered in club-shaped protein spikes.
They are drape viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 27 to 34 kilobases, the largest among known RNA viruses.
Coronaviruses are a group of relevant viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections that can be mild, such as some cases of the common cold, and others that can be fatal, such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19.
- Subfamily : Orthocoronavirinae
- Family : Coronaviridae
- Order : Nidovirales
- realm : Riboviria
Species: Human coronavirus 229E, Human coronavirus NL63, Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1, Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2, Scotophilus bat coronavirus 512.
Species: Betacoronavirus 1 (Human coronavirus OC43), Human coronavirus HKU1, Murine coronavirus, Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5, Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9, Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2), Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4, Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, Hedgehog coronavirus 1 (EriCoV)
Species: Beluga whale coronavirus SW1, Infectious bronchitis virus
Species: Bulbul coronavirus HKU11, Porcine coronavirus HKU15
Coronaviruses were first discovered in the 1930s when an acute respiratory infection of domesticated chickens was shown to be caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). In the 1940s, two more animal coronaviruses, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), were isolated.
Human coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s. The earliest ones studied were from human patients with the common cold, which were later named human coronavirus 229E and human coronavirus OC43. Other human coronaviruses have since been identified, including SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV NL63 in 2004, HKU1 in 2005, MERS-CoV in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019. Most of these have involved serious respiratory tract infections.
MERS-CoV, despite linked to several bat coronavirus species, come out to have deviate from these several centuries ago.
The most closely related bat coronavirus and SARS-CoV diverged in 1986. A path of evolution of the SARS virus and keen relationship with bats have been suggested. The authors suggest that the coronaviruses have been co evolved with bats for a long time and the ancestors of SARS-CoV first infected the species of the genus Hipposideridae, finally spread to species of the Rhinolophidae and then to civets, and later to humans.
- Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), of the genus ß-CoV
- Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), ß-CoV, its genome has 75% similarity to OC43
- Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a-CoV
- Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), a-CoV
Three strains (two species) produce symptoms that are potentially serious; all three of these are ß-CoV strains:
- Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
- Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 frequently circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children worldwide.
What actually Covid-19 is:
Cases of Covid-19 first arose in late 2019 due to strange sickness reported in Wuhan, China. The source of the disease was soon confirmed as a new kind of coronavirus, and the infection has since spread to many countries around the world and become a pandemic.
On 11 February the World Health Organization declared that the official name would be COVID-19, a shortened version of coronavirus disease 2019. The WHO specify to the specific virus that causes this disease as the COVID-19 virus.
Early in the outbreak, the virus was called 2019-nCoV by the WHO. The virus is also often indicate to as the novel coronavirus, 2019 coronavirus or just the coronavirus.
The spread of COVID-19 is a respiratory illness and is broadly spread via droplets in the air. These are commonly expelled when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Yet, people appear to keep dropping the virus for around two weeks after they recover from COVID-19, both in their saliva and stools.
This means that even once a person’s symptoms have cleared, it may still be possible to infect other people.
At this stage WHO does not recommend any medicine to treat or cure Covid-19 virus. But still the solidarity trial, led by WHO, is analyzing potential treatments for COVID-19.
Till now 1,347,689 cases appeared
(Content writer: umm-e-daniyal)